SEC. 421. DEFINITIONS.
For purposes of this part:
(1) Agency.—The term “agency” has the same meaning as defined in section 551(1) of title 5, United States Code, but does not include independent regulatory agencies.
(2) Amount.—The term “amount”, with respect to an authorization of appropriations for Federal financial assistance, means the amount of budget authority for any Federal grant assistance program or any Federal program providing loan guarantees or direct loans.
(3) Direct costs.—The term “direct costs”—
(A)(i) in the case of a Federal intergovernmental mandate, means the aggregate estimated amounts that all State, local, and tribal governments would be required to spend or would be prohibited from raising in revenues in order to comply with the Federal intergovernmental mandate; or
(ii) in the case of a provision referred to in paragraph (5)(A)(ii), means the amount of Federal financial assistance eliminated or reduced;
(B) in the case of a Federal private sector mandate, means the aggregate estimated amounts that the private sector will be required to spend in order to comply with the Federal private sector mandate;
(C) shall be determined on the assumption that—
(i) State, local, and tribal governments, and the private sector will take all reasonable steps necessary to mitigate the costs resulting from the Federal mandate, and will comply with applicable standards of practice and conduct established by recognized professional or trade associations; and
(ii) reasonable steps to mitigate the costs shall not include increases in State, local, or tribal taxes or fees; and
(D) shall not include—
(i) estimated amounts that the State, local, and tribal governments (in the case of a Federal intergovernmental mandate) or the private sector (in the case of a Federal private sector mandate) would spend—
(I) to comply with or carry out all applicable Federal, State, local, and tribal laws and regulations in effect at the time of the adoption of the Federal mandate for the same activity as is affected by that Federal mandate; or
(II) to comply with or carry out State, local, and tribal governmental programs, or private-sector business or other activities in effect at the time of the adoption of the Federal mandate for the same activity as is affected by that mandate; or
(ii) expenditures to the extent that such expenditures will be offset by any direct savings to the State, local, and tribal governments, or by the private sector, as a result of—
(I) compliance with the Federal mandate; or
(II) other changes in Federal law or regulation that are enacted or adopted in the same bill or joint resolution or proposed or final Federal regulation and that govern the same activity as is affected by the Federal mandate.
(4) Direct savings.—The term “direct savings”, when used with respect to the result of compliance with the Federal mandate—
(A) in the case of a Federal intergovernmental mandate, means the aggregate estimated reduction in costs to any State, local, or tribal government as a result of compliance with the Federal intergovernmental mandate; and
(B) in the case of a Federal private sector mandate, means the aggregate estimated reduction in costs to the private sector as a result of compliance with the Federal private sector mandate.
(5) Federal intergovernmental mandate.—The term “Federal intergovernmental mandate” means—
(A) any provision in legislation, statute, or regulation that—
(i) would impose an enforceable duty upon State, local, or tribal governments, except—
(I) a condition of Federal assistance; or
(II) a duty arising from participation in a voluntary Federal program, except as provided in subparagraph (B); or
(ii) would reduce or eliminate the amount of authorization of appropriations for—
(I) Federal financial assistance that would be provided to State, local, or tribal governments for the purpose of complying with any such previously imposed duty unless such duty is reduced or eliminated by a corresponding amount; or
(II) the control of borders by the Federal Government; or reimbursement to State, local, or tribal governments for the net cost associated with illegal, deportable, and excludable aliens, including court-mandated expenses related to emergency health care, education or criminal justice; when such a reduction or elimination would result in increased net costs to State, local, or tribal governments in providing education or emergency health care to, or incarceration of, illegal aliens; except that this subclause shall not be in effect with respect to a State, local, or tribal government, to the extent that such government has not fully cooperated in the efforts of the Federal Government to locate, apprehend, and deport illegal aliens;
(B) any provision in legislation, statute, or regulation that relates to a then-existing Federal program under which $500,000,000 or more is provided annually to State, local, and tribal governments under entitlement authority, if the provision—
(i)(I) would increase the stringency of conditions of assistance to State, local, or tribal governments under the program; or
(II) would place caps upon, or otherwise decrease, the Federal Government’s responsibility to provide funding to State, local, or tribal governments under the program; and
(ii) the State, local, or tribal governments that participate in the Federal program lack authority under that program to amend their financial or programmatic responsibilities to continue providing required services that are affected by the legislation, statute, or regulation.
(6) Federal mandate.—The term “Federal mandate” means a Federal intergovernmental mandate or a Federal private sector mandate, as defined in paragraphs (5) and (7).
(7) Federal private sector mandate.—The term “Federal private sector mandate” means any provision in legislation, statute, or regulation that—
(A) would impose an enforceable duty upon the private sector except—
(i) a condition of Federal assistance; or
(ii) a duty arising from participation in a voluntary Federal program; or
(B) would reduce or eliminate the amount of authorization of appropriations for Federal financial assistance that will be provided to the private sector for the purposes of ensuring compliance with such duty.
(8) Local government.—The term “local government” has the same meaning as defined in section 6501(6) of title 31, United States Code.
(9) Private sector.—The term “private sector” means all persons or entities in the United States, including individuals, partnerships, associations, corporations, and educational and nonprofit institutions, but shall not include State, local, or tribal governments.
(10) Regulation; rule.—The term “regulation” or “rule” (except with respect to a rule of either House of the Congress) has the meaning of “rule” as defined in section 601(2) of title 5, United States Code.
(11) Small government.—The term “small government” means any small governmental jurisdictions defined in section 601(5) of title 5, United States Code, and any tribal government.
(12) State.—The term “State” has the same meaning as defined in section 6501(9) of title 31, United States Code.
(13) Tribal government.—The term “tribal government” means any Indian tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or community, including any Alaska Native village or regional or village corporation as defined in or established pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (85 Stat. 688; 43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.) which is recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their special status as Indians.
 This part was added to title IV of the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 by section 101(a)(2) of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (Public Law 104– 4; 109 Stat. 50).
 “Section 551(1) of Title 5 of the United States Code reads as follows:
For the purpose of this subchapter—
(1) “agency” means each authority of the Government of the United States, whether or not it is within or subject to review by another agency, but does not include—
(A) the Congress;
(B) the courts of the United States;
(C) the governments of the territories or possessions of the United States;
(D) the government of the District of Columbia;
or except as to the requirements of section 552 of this title—
(E) agencies composed of representatives of the parties or of representatives of organizations of the parties to the disputes determined by them;
(F) courts martial and military commissions;
(G) military authority exercised in the field in time of war or in occupied territory; or
(H) functions conferred by sections 1738, 1739, 1743, and 1744 of title 12; subchapter II of chapter 471 of title 49; or sections 1884, 1891–1902, and former section 1641(b)(2), of title 50, appendix;”
(6) ‘local government; means a unit of general local government, a school district, or other special district established under State law.”
(2) the term “rule” means any rule for which the agency publishes a general notice of proposed rulemaking pursuant to section 553(b) of this title, or any other law, including any rule of general applicability governing Federal grants to State and local governments for which the agency provides an opportunity for notice and public comment, except that the term “rule” does not include a rule of particular applicability relating to rates, wages, corporate or financial structures or reorganizations thereof, prices, facilities, appliances, services, or allowances therefor or to valuations, costs or accounting, or practices relating to such rates, wages, structures, prices, appliances, services, or allowances;”
 Section 601(5) of Title 5, United States Code reads as follows:
(5) the term ‘small governmental jurisdiction’ means governments of cities, counties, towns, townships, villages, school districts, or special districts, with a population of less than fifty thousand, unless an agency establishes, after opportunity for public comment, one or more definitions of such term which are appropriate to the activities of the agency and which are based on such factors as location in rural or sparsely populated areas or limited revenues due to the population of such jurisdiction, and publishes such definition(s) in the Federal Register;”
(9) ‘State’ means a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, a territory or possession of the United States, and an agency, instrumentality, or fiscal agent of a State but does not mean a local government of a State.
LEGISLATIVE HISTORY NOTES
Pub. L. 93–344, title IV, §421, as added by Pub. L. 104–4, title I, §101(a)(2), Mar. 22, 1995, 109 Stat. 50; and subsequently amended by Pub. L. 113–67, div. A, title I, §122(14), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 1176 .
References in Text
The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, referred to in par. (13), is Pub. L. 92–203, Dec. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 688 , as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1601 et seq.) of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 43 and Tables.
Pub. L. 113–67, the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013, substituted “subparagraph (B)” for “subparagraph (B))”.
The Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1998 included the following effective date:
SEC. 110. EFFECTIVE DATE.
This title shall take effect on January 1, 1996 or on the date 90 days after appropriations are made available as authorized under section 109, whichever is earlier and shall apply to legislation considered on and after such date.